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+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه بیست و هفتم شهریور 1391ساعت 22:39  توسط سمپادی  | 

Isaac newton

Isaac newton

Sir Isaac NewtonSir Isaac Newton  ©Newton was an English physicist and mathematician, and the greatest scientist of his era.

Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire. His father was a prosperous farmer, who died three months before Newton was born. His mother remarried and Newton was left in the care of his grandparents. In 1661, he went to Cambridge University where he became interested in mathematics, optics, physics and astronomy. In October 1665, a plague epidemic forced the university to close and Newton returned to Woolsthorpe. The two years he spent there were an extremely fruitful time during which he began to think about gravity. He also devoted time to optics and mathematics, working out his ideas about 'fluxions' (calculus).

In 1667, Newton returned to Cambridge, where he became a fellow of Trinity College. Two years later he was appointed second Lucasian professor of mathematics. It was Newton's reflecting telescope, made in 1668, that finally brought him to the attention of the scientific community and in 1672 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society. From the mid-1660s, Newton conducted a series of experiments on the composition of light, discovering that white light is composed of the same system of colours that can be seen in a rainbow and establishing the modern study of optics (or the behaviour of light). In 1704, Newton published 'The Opticks' which dealt with light and colour. He also studied and published works on history, theology and alchemy.

In 1687, with the support of his friend the astronomer Edmond Halley, Newton published his single greatest work, the 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica' ('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy'). This showed how a universal force, gravity, applied to all objects in all parts of the universe.

In 1689, Newton was elected member of parliament for Cambridge University (1689 - 1690 and 1701 - 1702). In 1696,Newton was appointed warden of the Royal Mint, settling in London. He took his duties at the Mint very seriously and campaigned against corruption and inefficiency within the organisation. In 1703, he was elected president of the Royal Society, an office he held until his death. He was knighted in 1705.

Newton was a difficult man, prone to depression and often involved in bitter arguments with other scientists, but by the early 1700s he was the dominant figure in British and European science. He died on 31 March 1727 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه پنجم مهر 1391ساعت 22:0  توسط anahid  | 

The Peacock and the Tortoise ( طاووس و لاک پشت ) " داستان انگلیسی کوتاه ولی زیبا



In the name of  God

ONCE upon a time a peacock and a tortoise became great friends. The peacock lived on a tree by the banks of the stream in which the tortoise had his home. Everyday, after he had a drink of water, the peacock will dance near the stream to the amusement of his tortoise friend.
One unfortunate day, a bird-catcher caught the peacock and was about to take him away tothe market. The unhappy bird begged his captor to allow him to bid his friend, the tortoise good-bye.
The bird-catcher allowed him his request and took him to the tortoise. The tortoise was greatly disturbed to see his friend a captive.
The tortoise asked the bird-catcher to let the peacock go in return for an expensive present. The bird-catcher agreed. The tortoise then, dived into the water and in a few seconds came up with a handsome pearl, to the great astonishment of the bird-catcher. As this was beyond his exceptions, he let the peacock go immediately.
A short time after, the greedy man came back and told the tortoise that he had not paid enough for the release of his friend, and threatened to catch the peacock again unless an exact match of the pearl is given to him. The tortoise, who had already advised his friend, thepeacock, to leave the place to a distant jungle upon being set free, was greatly enraged at the greed of this man.
“Well,” said the tortoise, “if you insist on having another pearl like it, give it to me and I will fish you out an exact match for it.” Due to his greed, the bird-catcher gave the pearl to the tortoise, who swam away with it saying, “I am no fool to take one and give two!” The tortoise then disappeared into the water, leaving the bird-catcher without a single pearl

 

روزی روزگاری،طاووس و لاک پشتی بودن که دوستای خوبی برای هم بودن.طاووس نزدیک درخت کنار رودی که لاک پشت زندگی می کرد، خونه داشت.. هر روز پس از اینکه طاووس نزدیک رودخانه آبی می خورد ، برای سرگرم کردن دوستش می رقصید.
یک روز بدشانس، یک شکارچی پرنده، طاووس را به دام انداخت و خواست که اونو به بازار ببره. پرنده غمگین، از شکارچی اش خواهش کرد که بهش اجازه بده  از لاک پشت خداحافظی کنه.
شکارچی خواهش طاووس رو قبول کرد و اونو پیش لاک پشت برد. لاک پشت از این که میدید دوستش اسیر شده خیلی ناراحت شد.اون از شکارچی خواهش کرد که طاووس رو در عوض دادن هدیه ای باارزش رها کنه. شکارچی قبول کرد.بعد، لاکپشت داخل آب شیرجه زد و بعد از لحظه ای با مرواریدی زیبا بیرون اومد. شکارچی که از دیدن این کار لاک پشت متحیر شده بود فوری اجازه داد که طاووس بره. مدت کوتاهی بعد از این ماجرا، مرد حریص برگشت و به لاک پشت گفت که برای آزادی پرنده ، چیز کمی گرفته و تهدید کرد که دوباره طاووس رو اسیر میکنه مگه اینکه مروارید دیگه ای شبیه مروارید قبلی بگیره. لاک پشت که قبلا به دوستش نصیحت کرده بود برای آزاد بودن ، به جنگل دوردستی بره ،خیلی از دست مرد حریص، عصبانی شد.
لاک پشت گفت:بسیار خوب، اگه اصرار داری مروارید دیگه ای شبیه قبلی داشته باشی، مروارید رو به من بده تا عین اونو برات پیدا کنم. شکارچی به خاطر طمعش ،مروارید رو به لاک پشت داد. لاک پشت درحالیکه با شنا کردن از مرد دور می شد گفت: من نادان نیستم که یکی بگیرم و دوتا بدم. بعد بدون اینکه حتی یه مروارید به شکارجی بده، در آب ناپدید شد.

 

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه پنجم مهر 1391ساعت 21:47  توسط anahid  | 

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